When you succumb to it, you spend so much time putting out fires that you never get any real work done. How many times have you left work at the end of the day, only to realize that you didn't move the important things along even one inch? Learning to manage your time effectively frees you up to perform at your absolute highest level, and it does so every single day of your life. This one should be easy.
If we're not talking, we're listening, right? Well, not exactly. A lot of times, we think we're listening, but we're actually planning what we're going to say next.
Nine skills you should learn that pay off forever
True listening means focusing solely on what the other person is saying. It's about understanding, not rebuttal or input. Learning how to suspend judgment and focus on understanding the other person's input is one of the most important skills you can develop.
Listening is a bit like intelligence--most everyone thinks they're above average even though that's impossible. A study at Wright State University surveyed more than 8, people from different verticals, and almost all rated themselves as listening as well as or better than their co-workers. We know intuitively that many of them were wrong. There's so much talking happening at work that opportunities to listen abound. We talk to provide feedback, explain instructions, and communicate deadlines.
Beyond the spoken words, there's invaluable information to be deciphered through tone of voice, body language, and what isn't said. In other words, failing to keep your ears and eyes open could leave you out of the game. Saying no. Research conducted at the University of California, San Francisco, showed that the more difficulty you have saying no, the more likely you are to experience stress, burnout, and even depression.
Saying no is indeed a major challenge for many people. No is a powerful word that you should not be afraid to wield. When it's time to say no, avoid phrases such as I don't think I can or I'm not certain. Saying no to a new commitment honors your existing commitments and gives you the opportunity to successfully fulfill them. When you learn to say no, you free yourself from unnecessary constraints and free up your time and energy for the important things in life. Asking for help. It might seem counterintuitive to suggest that asking for help is a skill, but it is. It takes a tremendous amount of confidence and humility to admit that you need assistance.
This skill is critical, because the last thing a leader wants are employees who keep on trucking down the wrong path because they are too embarrassed or proud to admit that they don't know what they're doing. The ability to recognize when you need help, summon up the courage to ask for it, and follow through on that help is an extremely valuable skill. Getting high-quality sleep. We've always known that quality sleep is good for your brain, but recent research from the University of Rochester demonstrated exactly how so.
The study found that when you sleep, your brain removes toxic proteins, which are by-products of neural activity when you're awake, from its neurons. The catch here is that your brain can only adequately remove these toxic proteins when you have sufficient quality sleep. In the world of growth mindsets, it is about stretching oneself to learn something new.
Mindsets are best understood in the context of how people cope with rejection or failure. People with fixed traits feel an urgency to succeed. When failure occurs, it is a setback. And it can become a permanent and haunting trauma—one that moves from action I failed to belief I am a failure. People with growth mindsets see rejection or failure as learning experiences—ones that allow them to grow and improve.
It goes without saying that failure can be a painful experience even for those with growth mindsets. But it does not define them. Failure is simply a problem to be fixed, dealt with, and learned from. The performance review. A boss offers constructive criticism to a talented associate who possesses significant unrealized potential.
The boss suggests a performance improvement plan consisting of skill development, increased effort, and an attitude adjustment. Someone with a fixed mindset thinks that his or her boss is out of line and has no idea what he is talking about. The lost client.
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A producer gets blindsided with a mid-term broker of record letter on a sizable client. The fixed mindset producer is appalled by the disloyal client and berates his actions. As upset as he is, he sees the situation as a learning and growth opportunity.
Process-oriented approach to client acquisition. An agency principal calls a staff meeting to advise that he is fed up with the dominance of the competitive bid. She strongly suggests that the staff embrace a process-oriented, not product-oriented, approach to client acquisition. Rather than a quote, the prospect will receive a business risk analysis. The agency principal outlines the reasons for the new business model—including brand differentiation, increased hit ratios, and carrier support as a result of risk profile improvement.
I see no reason to consider a new approach in my mids. And everyone faces adversity. The difference is how people handle it. Stoltz, an avid mountain climber and expert on human resilience, divides the workplace into three groups of people:. Quitters: The Quitters are often bitter and resentful and the loudest whiners.
They retired 20 years ago but never told anyone. They have a fixed mindset. Campers: The Campers have worked hard to find a safe plateau in life. They would say that they have been aiming for this spot all their lives and now they can finally camp. These factors might affect learners who produce and perceive sounds in their L2. Theoretical models that have been introduced to explain speech learning include the perceptual assimilation model Best, and speech learning model Flege, For L2 sounds that are not so easily mapped to L1 categories, novel categories for the new features are created Antoniou et al.
It may indeed be harder to produce L2 sound distinctions that are not present in the L1 and for those that were categorized as equivalent to L1 incorrectly. Since learners map their L1 phonological and phonetic systems to those of the L2, it "is common for bilinguals to speak their L2 with a detectable foreign accent" and to "produce speech that is detectably different from that of native speakers of the language" Antoniou et al. This is especially vital for L2s who use different scripts in their L1, such those who switch between Roman, Cyrillic, Sanskrit, and character-based languages.
These factors are key when considering how technology mediates L2 speech acquisition and development. Research demonstrates that students may need explicit instruction and targeted feedback to improve their pronunciation. Targeted feedback TF is defined as an intervention where the learner is provided with information about their utterances; it is specific, evidence-based, and actionable in respect to an L2 targeted production to further pronunciation development Gass, ; Wiggins, This is significantly different from binary feedback, where the user is only told "wrong, try again" Chapelle, , p.
TF provides rich information that can inform how the L2 crafts a learner's next production. TF can come in many different forms such as oral feedback from an instructor or peer Kennedy et al. While most classroom instruction and materials are inadequate for improving learner pronunciation Arteaga, ; Morin, , TF can lead to significant improvement Chapelle, ; Elliott, ; Kartushina et al. Solon found no change in L2 Spanish production among university students spanning four years Examining allophonic patterning in the production of L2 Spanish laterals, Solon found that fourth-year Spanish students with an average of 9 years of Spanish study demonstrated no statistical difference from their first, second, or third-year peers Over the course of a week semester, Elliott found that input alone resulted in no improvement of intermediate Spanish student pronunciation.
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The experimental group received explicit instruction and TF on their pronunciation and improved in their ratings by trained native Spanish speaking judges Elliott, The data from approximately 30 hours of targeted native Spanish language input provide evidence that comprehensible input is not adequate for pronunciation development, while explicit instruction and TF result in improvement Elliott, Studies in the language classroom demonstrate that language software designed for L2 pronunciation development can also provide effective TF.
Visual feedback from a computer elicited statistically significant improvement in learner vowel production within one hour of instruction Kartushina et al. In this study, L1 French and L2 Danish participants were given explicit instructions about the position of their mouth in relation to visualizations. The experimental group visualized their production in comparison to native speaker targeted speech, where "articulatory feedback provided was based on an immediate, trial-by-trial acoustic analysis of the vowels produced by participants" Kartushina et al.
The control group was presented with the same visual field but was given no specific feedback about their production. There is a pattern that learners who receive no instruction or inadequate instruction which does not feature TF may not improve in their production of the L2. In contrast, learners exposed to TF dramatically improved in brief timeframes Kartushina et al. CALL can "make a huge difference" for language learners that should not be ignored Duffy, a, para.
CALL can be successfully integrated into the language classroom Blake, , but for the purposes of this study, the primary focus is the potential of CALL software for pronunciation development, regardless of whether it is employed inside or outside the classroom. CALL's "powerful, inexpensive hardware and well-designed software" provide tools and opportunities for language learners that did not exist only twenty-four years ago Rodman, , p.
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Even recently, technology that existed on the CALL market only a few years ago was "nearly unusable," especially in the domain of oral skills and voice recognition, leading some users to consider current tools somewhat "magical" S. Today, properly designed and scaffolded software can support learning in a "cost effective" and "efficient manner" Blake, , p.
hinsandbut.pro/51-chloroquine-phosphate-a.php CALL software can provide individualized material with feedback and ample opportunity for repeated practice in loops. CALL software can also "offer examples, receive output from learner, evaluate response, give feedback, evaluate whether the output was sufficiently correct, provide correct pronunciation, repeat, and continue" Rodman, , p. In many ways, CALL with speech capability has the potential to offer what no human can: unlimited stored knowledge, focused and personalized interactions, infinite patience and time, full attention, immediate feedback on each response, student-led pacing, and perfect consistency Golonka et al.
Thus far, the biggest limitation in the realm of speech recognition is technology's ability to gauge whether an utterance is "sufficiently correct" Rodman, , p. Dependent on dialect, goals of the learner, and accent, oral production can vary greatly and be impacted by small and subtle shifts Rodman, The ideal CALL speech software, the marriage of sophisticated speech technology and "implemented, commercially successful" tools, has not yet been realized and can be expected in the next few decades, if not sooner Chen, ; Rodman, , p.
Until the ideal tools are developed Rodman, , users must exploit current CALL software to its greatest extent. The choice of which software to analyze came from several sources, but most noteworthy is Lotherington's review of which software tools have won awards in recent years and which are prominently used by consumers Duffy, a; Lotherington, Rosetta Stone continues to be name brand language learning software in the United States. Lotherington found that Duolingo was featured in almost every "popular language teaching apps" reviewed between Lotherington, , p.
In , Duffy named Rosetta Stone and Duolingo the top 2 best language-learning programs on the market. Mango Languages and Babbel are up-and-coming companies who are less frequently cited but are making significant forays into the incorporation of speech technology in their software.